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:ICULTL

ROEDING'S

FRUIT GROWERS'

GUIDE

By GEO. C. ROEDING

FRESNO, CALIFORNIA

Copyrighted 19 19 by Geo. C. Roeding

ROBBING'S FRUIT GROWERS' GUIDE

MAIN LIBRARY-, 'SHICUl.TURE DEFT.

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Roeding's Fruit Growers* Guide

BEGINNING RIGHT

Fruit growing is a business, pure and simple. It had a very important bearing on our winning the war. The purchases of dried fruits in California alone, exclusive of canned goods for the men who were at the front, aggregated .$25,000,000 of the crop of 1918. Vegetables, canned and dried, formed another very important ad- junct in the diet of our men, and the purchases ran up to millions of dollars. Intensity in farming operations is being encouraged now more than ever before. A man who planted fruit trees and intercropped with vegetables during the period of the war certainly fulfilled his obligation to the Government. He not only provided for the future when he planted his orchard, and increased the value of his land, but in addition to this he was encouraged to go to the expense of install- ing a pumping plant for developing water, building ditches and, where necessary, cement pipe lines, with much more care and thoroughness than he would have done were he devoting his attention merely to the raising of vegetables alone. It is becoming more and more apparent in these days that a fruit grower should specialize. This does not mean that a man living on a farm should not have a small orchard, berries, vege- tables, alfalfa, a cow, poultry and hogs. It is being demonstrated, however, that with our diversified cli- mates and soils certain localities are better adapted to one variety of fruit than another. This point should never be lost sight of. There is far too great a tendency on the part of many people to* plant the fruit which has been bringing the highest prices for several seasons, utterly disregarding the fact that both soil and climate may not be conducive to make the venture a success.

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL

It is of the utmost importance that the land be put in first-class condition to receive the trees. Too great an emphasis cannot be laid on this one point. The subject is worthy of careful analysis. If the orchard is to be planted where irrigating is to be practised, careful attention must be given to grading so as to permit the water to run in furrows or to be properly distributed in checks around each tree to be irrigated. When scraping the land great care should be exercised not to remove the surface of the soil to too great a depth, for where this is done it causes the trees to grow poorly and neither thorough cultivation nor irrigation will overcome this trouble for years to come. Where it is necessary to take off the surface soil to a foot or more in order to permit a high piece of land to be irrigated it is far better, to pump the water to the higher elevation and distribute it in this manner. In other words, in preparing land which is to be irrigated, bear in mind that every point of the field should be graded, not leveled, to permit every foot of it to be covered with water. Nothing will do so much to promote the success of an undertaking as

to commence the work of leveling, plowing, and the instal- lation of the irrigating system early in the fall months. One point I want to be very emphatic on and that is, do not attempt to plant trees and vines on a commercial scale, where irrigation is to be practised, without know- ing where the supply of water is to come from. If the water is to be supplied by a canal system, have the main and lateral ditches large enough to carry a suffi- cient volume of water to permit the irrigating of the land as expeditiously as possible. Many people make the mistake, where they do not understand engineering, of attempting to do the work themselves without any ex- pert advice, thus causing themselves an endless amount of trouble through the fact that their ditches are not properly located, the banks not having sufficient slope and, in many instances, caving in. It is important to have the weirs, where there happens to be a heavy fall in a ditch, properly located to prevent washing of the banks. Where a cement pipe system is to be installed, even greater care must be exercised to have the pipe lines on a grade and the stand-pipes properly located to get the best results. The diameter of the pipe is de- termined by the volume of water to be carried and by the fall it has. Far better to err on the part of having the pipe system too large than to make the mistake of having it-too small aad not be in a position to convey the quantity of water which is available to the trees. If the water is to be pumped the engineer should deter- mine the location of the plant and see to it that it is large enough to provide the necessary water for the piece of land to be irrigated. An engineer is an impor- tant factor in a case like this and his charges for services rendered will be many times repaid in having the plant installed in such a manner as to secure a maximum of efficiency at a minimum of expense. There is probably no other institution in the world which has more reliable and authentic data on the installation of irrigating sys- tems or, for that matter, any other subject pertaining to agricultural and horticultural work, than the United States Department of Agriculture. Bulletins may be obtained therefrom at from five to ten rents each on any subject pertaining to farming operations by writing to the Division of Publications, Washington, D. C. After all the details relative to the irrigating of the land to be improved have been carefully considered, its preparation for planting is the next step in line. Deep plowing and particularly subsoiling will do much to promote the rapid growth of trees and vines. It may not be practical during the fall months to plow deeply, due to lack of rain. However, if possible after the leveling is finished, plow the land and finish with a buck-scraper. The Fresno scraper is probably the best all-around implement for rough grading, but for the finer work, filling up small holes and for smoothing, there is nothing like the first-named tool. Shallow plowing should always be done when conditions are

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RO£DING'S FRUIT GROWERS' GUIDE

most favorable. By all means plow and harrow the land just before planting.

Drainage should be given consideration, particularly if the land is low and liable to have water stand too closely to the surface during the spring and summer months. In California, where, as a rule, there is no substrata of clay, tile drains are the best. In soils where there are stratas of hardpan with intervening spaces of soil between, it becomes necessary to lay the tile on redwood boards which are grooved out to hold the tile in place. Should this not be done in soils of this character, when there is a superabundance of water in the ground it becomes a loblolly and the tile sinks out of place. It is necessary to have sump boxes (not less than five hundred feet apart) made out of two-inch redwood boards, to take care of the deposits of silt and sand from the drain pipe. If made of cement, they should not be less than three feet in diameter, the red- wood boxes should be three and one-half feet square. The bottom of the sump should be at least two feet below the pipe. Where the pipe line is within three to four feet of the surface of the ground and is laid to within twenty-five to thirty feet of the trees or vines, it is necessary to clean this pipe line out frequently dur- ing the summer months. A steel brush will have to be dragged through it to remove the roots, which are sure to enter between the sections of drain tile. The brush also stirs up the silt, which will invariably collect in the bottom of the pipe. The practical way to handle this is to keep a No. 8 galvanized wire in the drain at all times. When the cleaning operation is to be carried out this wire is used to draw a three-eighths inch woven wire cable through the drain. To this is attached the steel brush. A windlass is placed in the next box and the brush is drawn through. There should be a swivel on each end of the brush. It is necessary to attach the galvanized wire to the brush to pull it back, as it may be necessary to repeat the operation of drawing it through several times before the drain is clean.

SELECTING NURSERY STOCK

One point should never be forgotten in purchasing trees, and that is, that as far as appearances go one tree may apparently be as good as another. A little thought on the part of the purchaser will convince him that, although nursery stock may be classed as merchandise in the ordinary sense of the word, there are many im- portant factors that may mean the ultimate success or failure to the planter in his undertaking. California soils demand a variety of roots. To plant a prune on peach root, on soil which might be very wet during the greater part of the year, would mean the loss of the tree most likely just as soon as it came into bearing. The selecting of buds from the trees producing the very best quality of fruit and which are vigorous and healthy, should never be lost sight of. There are some stocks which may be apparently all right so far as growth goes, but which will die just about the time the orchard comes into its prime. This is very noticeable where any va- riety of citrus tree is budded on the lemon root. The tree dies without any apparent reason. It is a well- known fact among experienced nurserymen that the

lemon should never be used as a stock owing to its tendency to do this. A conscientious nurseryman fully realizes the responsibility resting on his shoulders and if he is going to fulfill his duties to the purchaser of his goods, he is going to strain every point to have them as represented. It is very easy to practise a deception, because it takes three years for the buyer to learn whether or not the trees delivered to him are true to name. Therefore, be as careful in the selecting of a nurseryman as you would be your physician. The per- sonality and reliability of the firm with which you are dealing should never be overlooked when buying trees. The firm that never relaxes its attention to every detail, from the planting of the seed to the time the trees are properly packed and shipped, is the one to favor with your business.

TIME TO PLANT

Fall planting is never desirable in California, because the growing season often extends into the month of November. It rarely occurs that frosts are severe enough toward the latter part of the month to check the growth. The roots of trees dug before they have fully matured turn black, and the tree either starts very slowly in the spring or does not grow at all. The best time to set deciduous trees is from January to April 1st. All evergreen fruit trees should be planted from February to May 1st, although in many localities, particularly sections of the state where the summer climate is cool, planting may be continued later than this.

A safe rule to follow is to plant deciduous trees when dormant and those which are classed as evergreens as soon as the sap commences to rise in the spring.

TREATMENT WHEN RECEIVED The trees when received at point of destination should be immediately unpacked and the roots laid in a trench and well covered with soil, which should then be thoroughly wet down. If delayed in transit, thereby becoming dry and suffering from exposure (the bark showing signs of shriveling), it is a good plan to immerse the trees in a tank overnight and the following day bury root and top completely in damp soil for a few days until they become normal, when they may be with safety planted out. Should trees be frozen while in transit, place the package in a cellar or some other place free from frost until thawed out, when they can be un- packed and heeled in, preparatory to planting. Trees treated in this manner will not be injured by having been frozen.

It is quite practicable to ship trees when dormant to other localities where the weather or seasonable con- ditions might not make it advisable to plant on arrival. When the trees are received, place them in cold storage. The temperature should be maintained at from 32 to 35 degrees Fahrenheit. The shipment should be exam- ined and if found to be in good condition, the contents should remain undisturbed in the case or bale until the time for planting arrives. This method of handling trees is thoroughly practicable, so much so that it is possible to ship trees to the antipodes during

ROBBING'S FRUIT GROWERS' GUIDE

the winter season and have the shipment on arrival there placed in cold storage until the opening of the planting season.

PREPARING TREES FOR PLANTING Just immediately before planting be sure to examine the roots carefully, and cut away to a smooth surface all bruised, lacerated and broken roots and rootlets with a sharp knife or pruning shear. The cut on the larger roots should be sloping and made on the lower side of the root. The tree can now be said to be ready for its permanent orchard home.

If planting is delayed through circumstances beyond the control of the orchardist and a warm spell should intervene in February or March, causing the buds of the trees or vines to start, remove them from the trenches, shake out all the dirt from the roots and ex- pose them for two hours in the early morning on a calm day to the rays of the sun. This will cause the small, white rootlets which have started, to dry up, and if the trees are heeled in (wetting them down, of course), in a shady place their dormancy may be prolonged several weeks.

HOW TO PLANT

Planting System. There are a number of methods of planting an orchard, but vineyards are usually set in the square system. In order to eliminate much of the •confusion that seems to exist in the mind of the planter when deviating from the rectangular or square system, we are submitting plans drawn to a scale and are out- lining under each one of them the plan of procedure. It is very important in laying off the ground to have straight lines, not only for the purpose of retaining sym- metry in the orchard but also for the many other ad- vantages in cultivating, irrigating, etc.

Explanation of Diagrams. The planting distances are represented by the figure 1, all other related dis- tances by multiple parts of 1, so that any desired dis- tance on any of the diagrams may be obtained by the simple process of multiplying the desired distance by the distance indicated on diagram.

Square System. One of the advantages of this sys- tem is that it permits cultivation in both ways, espe- cially when the trees become larger. The trees are not equally distributed over the ground, however.

The first step to be taken in this and the following plans is to have the base lines at right angles. In planting a large place, these lines should be obtained by a transit. By studying the plans and observing the directions herewith given, the method of procedure is readily understood.

SQUARE PLANTING

Rule: Square Method.— Multiply the distance in feet between the rows by the distance the plants are apart in the rows, and the product will be the number of square feet for each plant or hill; which, divided into the number of feet in an acre (43,560), will give the num- ber of plants or trees to an acre.

Lay off the base lines A B and A C along two sides of the planting field in such a manner that the angle at A

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is an exact right angle (90 degrees), and set stakes on said base lines the desired distance apart. Care must be exercised to have all stakes on true lines.

A right angle can be formed in the field by the fol- lowing method :

Lay off 30 feet from A along base line A B on the dia- gram; then a point on base line A C will be 40 feet from A and 50 feet from the other end of the 30-foot length.

After setting the stakes along the base lines at plant- ing distance apart, the next step should be to set stakes along secondary lines drawn parallel with base line A B, and such distances therefrom as will be multiples of the planting distance required, and at the same time no further apart than permitted by the length of the planting chain. This should preferably be of stranded wire No. 19 gauge and provided with numbered metal tags designed to be inserted at desired distances apart.

Experience has demonstrated that a 250-foot chain is the most serviceable. The chain should be stretched for several days before using to prevent too much varia- tion in the field.

The chain should be provided with a ring and about two feet of surplus length of wire on each end for easy manipulation and stretching. Iron stake pins should be used to hold the chain in position. To do this prop- erly it is advisable to lay off a temporary base line B D from end B of base line A B and at right angles thereto, setting flags on such temporary base lines at distances to correspond with the spacing of the secondary lines.

With the flags as a guide, lay off the planting stakes on the secondary lines, starting always from base line A C. Then all that is required to complete the staking will be to stretch the chain between similar points on the secondary lines and set the stakes at each tag on the chain previously adjusted.

Quincunx System. The 'only advantage in this method of planting is in connection with using a filler temporarily, to be dug up as soon as there is any indi- cation of crowding. This permits of double the amount of trees to the acre than in the square system.

ROBBING'S FRUIT GROWERS' GUIDE

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Proceed to stake the field in squares. Then without the aid of a chain, place a stake in the center of each square. This is readily determined by sighting along the two diagonal rows of stakes at right angles to each other.

Rule: Quincunx Method. Multiply the number re- quired to the acre "Square Method" by 2. The result will be the number of plants required to the acre by this method.

Hexagonal System. This is the only one in which the trees are equidistant in every direction, every tree being at one point of an equilateral triangle.

The name "Septuple," sometimes applied to this system, refers to the fact that the number of trees in each group unit is seven. Note hexagon on diagram.

To illustrate the plan to be followed, we will consider that the trees are to be set 24 feet apart. Then on base line A B set stakes 24 feet apart. On base line A C set stakes 0.866 times the planting distance apart or every 20.784 feet (or 20 feet 9 inches).

The first stake on the intermediate line, shown by the hollow circle on the diagram, should be 12 feet from the base line A C and 20 feet 9 inches from base line C D.

In using this method of staking, tags of two different colors should be used, one starting at zero and the other .50 times the planting distance from the zero end of the chain.

For the convenience of the planter we are giving herewith the distances between rows of trees, parallel with base line A B on the diagram, to correspond with various planting distances:

As an illustration, if trees are planted 18 feet apart on base line A B, the following row would be 15 feet 7 inches and correspondingly greater distance where the trees are to be planted further apart. Base line A B 18 ft. Secondary line 15 ft. 7 in. from A B Base line A B 20 ft. Secondary line 17 ft. 4 in. from A B Base line A B 22 ft. Secondary line 19 ft. ^ in. from A B Base line A B 24 ft. Secondary line 20 ft. 9 in. from A B Base line A B 28 ft. Secondary line 24 ft. 3 in. from A B

Base line A B 30 ft. Secondary line 26 ft. 0 in. from A B Base line A B 36 ft. Secondary line 31 ft. 2 in. from A B Baseline A B 40 ft. Secondary line 34 ft. Sin. from A B

Rule: Hexagonal Method. First, figure the number of trees required per acre by the "Square Method," us- ing the same planting distance; then divide by the decimal .866. The result will be the number of plants required to the acre by this method.

Alternate System. We will assume that the plant- ing distance is to be 24 feet apart, and then all stakes on base line A B will be 24 feet apart. The alternate stakes on this line will be for temporary use only. In setting stakes on lines parallel with base A C, the tags of one color should be spaced 24 feet apart, commencing at the zero end. Tags of another color (for use on alter- nate lines) should be spaced 24 feet apart, commencing at a distance of 12 feet from the zero end of the chain.

Rule: Alternate Method. The number of plants re- quired per acre by this method is the same as that re- quired by the "Square Method" with similar planting distances.

Planting Distances. Distance

apart each way

Standard Apples 25 to 30 feet

Standard Pears. : 24 to 30 feet

Dwarf Pear 12 to 15 feet

Strong-growing Cherries 24 to 30 feet

Duke and Morello Cherries. 18 to 24 feet

Standard Plums and Prunes 24 to 30 feet

Peaches and Nectarines 24 to 30 feet

Apricots 24 to 30 feet

Figs 25 to 40 feet

Olives ' 30 to 35 feet

Citrus trees 22 to 30 feet

Walnuts 40 to 60 feet

Almonds 24 to 30 feet

Grapes 6x6, 6x12, 8x8 and 8x10 feet

ROEDING'S FRUIT GROWERS' GUIDE

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NUMBER OF TREES TO THE

Distance

Square

Quincunx ]

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8ft.

680

1360

785

10ft.

435

870

500

12ft.

302

604

349

14ft.

222

444

255

16ft.

170

340

196

18ft.

134

268

154

20ft.

109

218

124

22ft.

90

180

104

24ft.

75

150

87

25ft.

70

140

80

26ft.

64

128

74

28ft.

56

112

.64

30ft.

48

96

55

32ft.

43

86

49

36 ft.

34

68

39

40ft.

27

54

31

45 ft,

22

44

25

Alternate 680 435 302 222 170 134 109 90 75 70 64 56 48 43 34 27 22

Note. All of these figures are not exact for planting one acre, but are intended for the planting of a multiple of acres.

BLASTING THE HOLES

Much interest has been manifested of late years in dynamiting the holes prior to the planting of the trees. It is absolutely necessary to do this in hardpan soils in order to plant trees at all.

It has been the practice not to blast where the hard- pan came within three feet of the surface. Actual experience has demonstrated that not only striking and remarkable development in the growth of trees had been secured by blasting where hardpan was found, but in any soil of a heavy, compact nature. It does not take much of a stretch of the imagination to comprehend the fact that a thorough disintegration of the soil, per- mitting the roots to ramify in every direction, will pro- mote a rapid root and top growth. The drilling of the hardpan is .carried on very expeditiously nowadays by the use of a power drill mounted on a wagon.

IMPORTANT DETAILS

As has been suggested previously, above all things have your ground in the very best condition of tilth. The importance of this one point cannot be dwelt upon too forcibly, for it not only insures more rapid work on the part of the men setting your trees, but in addition to this, not having any clods to contend with, the fine loose soil packs around the roots, when tramped in. If for any reason there should be no water available for settling the trees there is less likelihood of their drying out.

A stake about half an inch square and one foot long, split out of redwood, will be found to be a very conven- ient size^as a marker for the setting of the trees. Dip about six inches of one end in whitewash. They can then be readily seen, and should any of the stakes be out of line it will be noticed at once. Before digging the holes it is necessary to have a tree setting board. This is easily made out of a piece of 1x4 six feet long with an inch hole at each end and a notch in the center. Place the notched center against the stake where the tree is to be planted and push a stake into the ground through the holes at each end of the planter and remove the center stake. The hole may now be dug and this should not be less than 18 inches in diameter and 18 inches deep. After the hole is dug, replace the board over the end stakes in its former position, then plant the tree with the trunk end resting against the center notch in the board and it will be in identically the same place as the stake which was removed to dig the hole.

In setting out, one person should hold the tree in an upright position against the notch in the tree setter, while another shovels or fills in the loose soil around it, first spreading out the roots and rootlets in as natural a position as possible. The surface or friable soil should be put in first among the roots, care being taken to fill in every interstice, thus bringing all the roots in direct contact with the soil. When the hole is two-thirds full, firm the earth thoroughly about the roots, but before doing this draw the tree up to its permanent position. The top three to four inches of soil should not to be tramped.

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A basin should be scooped out around the tree which will hold at least fifteen gallons of water, and unless heavy rains should intervene to fill it up, water should be applied either by bucket or by irrigation. The fol- lowing day draw in loose soil to fill up this basin, reduc- ing it to a fine condition of tilth and do not tramp in. Guard against setting too deeply, but allow for the settling of the soil, so that when once established the tree will stand about as it did at the time of removal from the nursery rows, or at the outside not more than three inches below the surface of the soil. In the hot interior valleys of this state, it is also very important to protect the trunks with tree-protectors until they can. supply their own shade.

ROEDING'S FRUIT GROWERS' GUIDE

BRINGING AN ORCHARD OR VINEYARD INTO BEARING

Just in the proportion that the orchard receives in- tensive and intelligent care, will it give corresponding returns on the investment of capital, time and labor. Above all things, do not plant too many varieties if you desire to be a factor in the business. As an illustration, it is a mistake to have a different variety on each acre, for when this orchard comes into bearing there are so many varieties and so limited a quantity of each that the commercial packer of dried or canned fruits does not feel inclined to pay what the fruit is worth, because there is not enough of any one kind to make it an object for him to handle it.

The handling and marketing of fruit has assumed such vast proportions that there are always commercial institutions eager enough to enter a new field and ex- ploit it as soon as the production is large enough to en- courage the building of packing houses for the handling of any particular product. Another serious mistake on the part of many growers is to endeavor ^o harvest big crops when their trees are only two years old. This is an unwise policy and in many cases sacrifices the tree, resulting in its not producing profitable crops when it should be in its prime, and in consequence of this requiring extraordinary care to restore it to its proper vigor. Tlie care bestowed for the first two or three years in cultivating, pruning and irrigating, where the rainfall is insufficient to carry the trees through the long dry summer months, is the foundation for the upbuilding of an orchard which will redound to the credit of the owner and give him ample returns for his intelligent care and years of hard work.

Next to the thorough cultivation there is nothing which is more vital to the life of a tree than proper irrigation. It is difficult to lay down specific rules on this point, but there are basic ones which can generally be observed in the handling of most deciduous trees, with some exceptions, and instructions pertaining to such cases will be. dwelt on under proper heads.

MUST BE CUT BACK

After a tree is set never fail to cut it back. This is now the general practice among the most successful orchardists throughout California, and is the result of years of experience* The following winter from three to four branches, properly distributed around the body of the tree, should be allowed to remain to form the head, and each one of these branches should have at least one-half of their growth removed, cutting away all laterals from them also. These leaders will eventually form the framework of the tree. The first year's pruning will result in the trees making an immense growth and also induce them to grow stocky. The second winter heavy thinning will have to be fol- lowed and the pruning should be done with a view of causing the framework branches to spread out. There may be some variation from these instructions, there- fore it is advisable to read carefully the information given under each head. The many advantages of this method of pruning are : (1 ) it makes a low-crowned and a more stocky tree, affording an umbrageous head, and

thus protecting it from the hot rays of the scorching summer sun; (2) it enhances the carrying capacity of the tree, thus avoiding artificial props when maturing a crop of fruit; (3) it expedites the harvesting of the crop by rendering it more accessible to the pickers, thus economizing time and expense; (4) it prolongs the life of the tree by reason of conserving its vital forces and rendering it less liable to damage in the breaking of limbs and taxing its strength by carrying its fruits "close in."

IRRIGATION

During the first season for deciduous trees in districts where irrigation is practised, water should be applied not less than four times during the year. For the first two years it is not necessary to irrigate all of the ground between the rows. A space six feet wide will answer the necessary requirements in nearly all cases.

The planter should never lose sight of one important fact, and that is, if the orchard or vineyard can be maintained in a thrifty, vigorous condition thorough cultivation is recommended as being preferable to an irrigation.

THE APPLE

In the temperate zone no variety of fruit is so widely distributed or has been more extensively planted than the apple. The list of varieties is amazing. "Down- ing's Fruits" alone lists about 3500 sorts.

Varieties are variable as to localities, and in planting in sections where apple culture is pursued commercially the advice -as to the best varieties to plant should be sought from experienced growers. Broadly speaking, the hot interior valleys are not suitable for commercial apple culture, on a large scale, as the very rapid and early maturing of the fruit does not seem to be con- ducive to long-keeping, as found in tried localities where .conditions are favorable for perfecting fruit having long-keeping qualities. Nevertheless, it is a fact that where moisture is readily maintained in a soil by either irrigation or by sub-irrigation, many varieties are of such exceptionally large size, present so fine an appear- ance and are of such excellent flavor that more attention should be given to their culture.

SOIL AND SITUATION

The best soil for this fruit is a deep, rich loam which will allow the free extension of the roots and is exempt from stagnant water. An extremely light soil should be avoided. Apples do exceedingly well in all the coast counties, as well as in the upper foothills and mountains of the Sierra Nevada. In adjacent states and terri- tories to the north and east, apple culture is more gen- eral, and may be safely followed whereverHhe soil and climate is favorable. The keeping qualities and the flavor and coloring of our mountain-grown apples at elevations of 3000 to 5000 feet or more, are indeed hard to surpass.

California's great apple center is located in the vicinity of Watsonville. There exists in that section a combination of soil and climate which causes 'apples not only to be of good quality but excellent keepers.

ROEDING'S FRUIT GROWERS' GUIDE

POINTS TO BE OBSERVED

It is the consensus of opinion among commercial growers that trees should be planted from twenty-five to thirty feet apart in orchard form. Crab apples may be planted closer. Trees should be .cut back to twenty inches from the top of the ground after being set, except in the higher altitudes, where the snow in settling would cause the branches to break off, thus making it advisable to head the trees at not less than two feet from the ground. Apples are very much sub- ject to sun scald and to the attack of the flat-headed borer the first few years after trees are set out. When headed low, protected with tree protectors, permitting of free circulation of air, and by giving the stem a coat- ing of whitewash to which has been added soap and crude carbolic acid, little danger need be apprehended from either of these evils. The wash is made in the fol- lowing manner: Dissolve one-half gallon of soft soap in one-half gallon of hot water, adding one-fourth pint of crude carbolic acid. When mixing add five gallons of hot water and enough lime to make a mixture the consistency of paint.

SHAPING THE TREE

In forming the head of the tree no branches closer than one foot from the surface of the ground should be allowed to grow. The following winter they should be cut back at least one-half and thinned out so as not to leave more than four branches to form the framework, and these should be distributed in such a manner as not to crowd one another as the tree develops. Each one

A four-year-old Apple tree with a well balanced head.

The same tree with the leaders and laterals shortened in. It has reached the point where it is in shape to produce a crop of fruit.

of these branches should be regarded as a subdivision to maintain the wood supply to eventually form a per- fectly vase-formed tree. The second winter not more than two laterals should be allowed to grow from the framework branches, and if there is a tendency to crowd, not more than one, and its growth should again be shortened very severely. The tendency as far as possible should be to prune to an outside bud for the first two winters' pruning. With the head now prac- tically formed, the orchardist must shape the tree in accordance with its 'development, leaving and shorten- ing in the inside laterals if they show a tendency to spread out, or if the inclination is to assume too upright a form, cause them to spread by leaving the outside laterals. The cutting back of the trees and judicious thinning prevent the long bare branches so noticeable in trees which have not been systematically pruned every winter. The effect of this method of pruning is to cause the structural branches to be sturdier, the load of fruit is carried closer to the trunk and even with a very heavy crop of fruit the necessity of propping is eliminated very largely. Props are an expensive item and they also interfere very materially with the harvest- ing of the crop, so that a method of pruning which will dispense with them is worthy of very careful consid- eration.

ROOTS

The stock generally used for budding or grafting the apple is Mains communis, common apple. These stocks

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ROEDING'S FRUIT GROWERS' GUIDE

are raised from seed. Much interest has been mani- fested in the Wooly Aphis resistant roots. After twenty years of careful experimental work, it has been fully demonstrated that the Northern Spy root is absolutely resistent to the attacks of this insect. Trees growing in badly infested districts are entirely free from it, thus proving conclusively the value of the Northern Spy root. It is only reasonable to suppose that these trees should command a higher figure than those budded on the seedlings, when the additional expense incurred in handling is taken into consideration. In the first place it is necessary to have mother trees growing in the